When looking at the high-low hierarchy it often determines the way people view culture as a whole today, saying high culture is good taste and low culture is questionable taste.
Rational beings make the moral law for themselves and can regard themselves as authors of the law. For Kant the moral law is a categorical, not Popular cultures subserviance to high culture essay hypothetical, imperative. The act of formulating a categorical imperative, and hence the moral law, is an act of a pure autonomous will, because, unlike the formulation of a hypothetical imperative, it is untainted by the influence of the desires and interests that an agent may have relative to a particular situation.
For example, in the original position, agents do not know their social status, natural abilities, or conceptions of the good Rawls Such agents, like Kantian agents, are not influenced by the particular desires and preferences that are contingent on being embedded in an actual situation.
Feminist philosophers typically reject the Kantian and Rawlsian conceptions of autonomy. Since these initial critical reactions, feminist philosophers have attempted to rehabilitate autonomy e. Some feminist philosophers have argued that articulating the conditions under which autonomous choice is exercised is vital to attempts to understand gender oppression.
If relationships of care and interdependence are valuable and morally significant cf. One way to answer this question is to examine what might be considered failures of autonomy that appear to be linked to practices of gender oppression. This section describes three examples that have been widely discussed in the feminist literature on autonomy.
She was intensely sympathetic. She was immensely charming. She excelled in the difficult arts of family life.
She sacrificed herself daily. If there was chicken, she took the leg, if there was a draught, she sat in it.
She buys the clothes he prefers, invites the guests he wants to entertain, and makes love whenever he is in the mood. She willingly moves to a new city in order for him to have a more attractive job, counting her own friendships and geographical preferences insignificant by comparison She does not simply defer to her husband in certain spheres as a trade-off for his deference in other spheres.
On the contrary, she tends not to form her own interests, values, and ideals, and when she does, she counts them as less important than her husband's.
Hill5 One would think that such excessive deference would be incompatible with autonomy.
Excessive deference implies that others, not the agent herself, are driving the agent's choice and preference formation. However, Westlund points out that on some popular accounts of autonomy, because the woman is willing to subordinate herself, or because she prefers deference and values her own opinions and interests less than she values those of her husband, she may be considered autonomous.
For example, on one influential account, that of Harry Frankfurt, a preference is autonomous if it is one with which the agent wholeheartedly identifies Frankfurt As Westlund argues, the agent here seems to identify wholeheartedly with her preference for deference to her husband: The example is of interest to feminists in the first place because the deference and apparent preference for subservience it describes is gendered.
It is an outcome of systems of gender oppression that women are expected to assume servile roles, and hence may come to endorse, prefer or willingly adopt them.
Moreover, perhaps precisely because of the connection between these kinds of preferences and systems of gender oppression, many feminists resist the conclusion that the Angel and the Deferential Wife are autonomous.
Thus Susan Babbitt argues that although the Deferential Wife appears to be have made a rational judgment about what she values, and appears therefore to be living according to her own life-plans, in fact the preference for subservience is incompatible with her autonomy: If this is right, influential accounts of autonomy, and those feminist positions influenced by them, will have to be revised.
According to Jon Elster's classic description of adaptive preference formation, a fox, after finding that he can no longer reach some grapes, decides that he does not want the grapes after all. The fox adapts his preferences to what he perceives to be the options available to him.
In order to distinguish adaptive preference formation from preference change due to learning and other processes, Elster proposes that the former is an unconscious process in which an agent turns away from a preference to avoid unpleasant cognitive dissonance that is associated with holding on to it.
For example, Martha Nussbaum describes the case of poor working women in India who, though subjected to physical abuse by their husbands, choose to remain in the marriage.Autonomy is usually understood by the agent herself, are driving the agent's choice and preference formation. However, Westlund points out that on some popular accounts of autonomy, because the to oppressive circumstances.
Rather, the practices in question can be the explicit requirements of a society or culture, and self-consciously. [tags: Papers] words ( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Popular Cultures Subserviance to High Culture - Popular Cultures Subserviance to High Culture For about a century, Western Culture has really been divided into two cultures, the traditional type of high culture and a mass culture manufactured wholesale for the market.
Popular culture is often taken from culture, diluted and then distributed to the masses for personal gain. Sub cultures are created to help a group of people who feel left out from society, find there place.
Essay on Popular Culture's Subserviance to High Culture Words | 3 Pages. Popular Culture's Subserviance to High Culture For about a century, Western Culture has really been divided into two cultures, the traditional type of 'high culture' and a 'mass culture' manufactured wholesale for the market.
Essay on Popular Culture's Subserviance to High Culture - Popular Culture's Subserviance to High Culture For about a century, Western Culture has really been divided into two cultures, the traditional type of 'high culture' and a 'mass culture' manufactured wholesale for the market. and reference work the Dictionary of Literary Works is unique, or have achieved a measure of critical and/or popular acclaim, and/or have been frequently anthologized, read, studied, seen, and/or alluded to, or a high intelligence—these are the hallmarks of Malcolm X’s life and story.