The S-1 Committee held its meeting on 18 December "pervaded by an atmosphere of enthusiasm and urgency"  in the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent United States declaration of war upon Japan and then on Germany. Lawrence and his team at the University of California, Berkeleyinvestigated electromagnetic separationwhile Eger Murphree and Jesse Wakefield Beams 's team looked into gaseous diffusion at Columbia Universityand Philip Abelson directed research into thermal diffusion at the Carnegie Institution of Washington and later the Naval Research Laboratory. Styerthe chief of staff of Major General Brehon B.
The Manhattan Project This once classified photograph features the first atomic bomb — a weapon that atomic scientists had nicknamed "Gadget. Fears soon spread over the possibility of Nazi scientists utilizing that energy to produce a bomb capable of unspeakable destruction. They agreed that the President must be informed of the dangers of atomic technology in the hands of the Axis powers.
Fermi traveled to Washington in March to express his concerns to government officials. But few shared his uneasiness.
Leaving nothing to chance, Los Alamos atomic scientists conducted a pre-test test in May to check the monitoring instruments. A ton bomb was exploded some yards from the Trinity site where Gadget would be detonated a few weeks later.
Einstein penned a letter to President Roosevelt urging the development of an atomic research program later that year. Roosevelt saw neither the necessity nor the utility for such a project, but agreed to proceed slowly. In latethe American effort to design and build an atomic bomb received its code name — the Manhattan Project.
At first the research was based at only a few universities — Columbia University, the University of Chicago and the University of California at Berkeley. A breakthrough occurred in December when Fermi led a group of physicists to produce the first controlled nuclear chain reaction under the grandstands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago.
Enrico Fermi, a physicist who left fascist Italy for America, encouraged the U. The result was the top-secret "Manhattan Project. The main assembly plant was built at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Robert Oppenheimer was put in charge of putting the pieces together at Los Alamos.
The Manhattan Project employed overAmericans. Neither the Germans nor the Japanese could learn of the project. Roosevelt and Churchill also agreed that Stalin would be kept in the dark.
Consequently, there was no public awareness or debate. Although the Axis powers remained unaware of the efforts at Los Alamos, American leaders later learned that a Soviet spy named Klaus Fuchs had penetrated the inner circle of scientists.
This crater in the Nevada desert was created by a kiloton nuclear bomb buried feet beneath the surface. It is the result of a test investigating whether nuclear weapons could be used to excavate canals and harbors. By the summer ofOppenheimer was ready to test the first bomb.
The device was affixed to a foot tower and discharged just before dawn. No one was properly prepared for the result. A blinding flash visible for miles lit up the morning sky.
A mushroom cloud reached 40, feet, blowing out windows of civilian homes up to miles away.
When the cloud returned to earth it created a half-mile wide crater metamorphosing sand into glass. A bogus cover-up story was quickly released, explaining that a huge ammunition dump had just exploded in the desert.
Soon word reached President Truman in Potsdam, Germany that the project was successful. The world had entered the nuclear age. Fifty Years From Trinity The Seattle Times has created one of the definitive sites examining the development of the atomic bomb.
But was it worth the environmental and financial costs? This massive site provides loads of information to help you reach your own conclusions.
The Costs of the Manhattan Project This concise website details exactly how much money was spent on the development of the atomic bomb during the Manhattan Project, and exactly where that money was spent.
The average cost of an atomic bomb during the World War II era: The Manhattan Project Here is a month-by-month detailed account of the status of the atomic bomb leading up to the detonation of "Gadget" in the deserts of Alamogordo, New Mexico in July, Images of the important figures, bomb-manufacturing plants, and explosions make this site a to see.As with the decision to drop the bomb, teachers can organize their class into groups and have them debate the issue of atomic weapons and the effects of nuclear energy.
Have students begin to outline some of the social and political changes that resulted from the Manhattan Project.
Manhattan Project What Were The Social And Cultural Effects Of The Development Of The Nuclear Bomb. of Hiroshima, Japan and dropped the first atomic bomb ever. The city went up in flames caused by the immense power equal to about 20, tons of TNT. The project was a success. Environmental Consequences.
Environmental Consequences. History Page Type: the United States was in the middle of a war and the Manhattan Project mandated that an atomic bomb be built as soon as possible.
the studies initiated by Groves at Hanford during the Manhattan Project were too short to investigate the long-term effects on . The Manhattan Project and Its Legacy.
Table of Contents Just as expert and multifaceted were museum professionals from Manhattan Project historic sites, the Smithsonian Institution, and science museums; interpretation specialists from the National Transforming the Relationship Between Science and Society.
The project was a desperate effort by the US to beat the Nazis to the development of a nuclear weapon. It was a huge , people effort, towns such as Oak Ridge and Hanford were literally special built for the project.
The Social and Economic Effects Of Nuclear War April 21, Arthur Katz, Sima R. Osdoby If the full range of economic, social, and political effects, as well. as casualty projections, of fighting various types of proposed nuclear war were to be examined realistically, our.