An in depth review of the functions of the pancreas

The pancreas has two main functions:

An in depth review of the functions of the pancreas

Oxidative phosphorylationChemiosmosisand Mitochondrion In oxidative phosphorylation, the electrons removed from organic molecules in areas such as the protagon acid cycle are transferred to oxygen and the energy released is used to make ATP. This is done in eukaryotes by a series of proteins in the membranes of mitochondria called the electron transport chain.

In prokaryotesthese proteins are found in the cell's inner membrane.

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Pumping protons out of the mitochondria creates a proton concentration difference across the membrane and generates an electrochemical gradient.

These organisms can use hydrogen[45] reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfidehydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate[1] ferrous iron FeII [46] or ammonia [47] as sources of reducing power and they gain energy from the oxidation of these compounds with electron acceptors such as oxygen or nitrite.

PhototrophPhotophosphorylationand Chloroplast The energy in sunlight is captured by plantscyanobacteriapurple bacteriagreen sulfur bacteria and some protists. This process is often coupled to the conversion of carbon dioxide into organic compounds, as part of photosynthesis, which is discussed below.

The energy capture and carbon fixation systems can however operate separately in prokaryotes, as purple bacteria and green sulfur bacteria can use sunlight as a source of energy, while switching between carbon fixation and the fermentation of organic compounds.

This proton motive force then drives ATP synthesis. Reaction centers are classed into two types depending on the type of photosynthetic pigment present, with most photosynthetic bacteria only having one type, while plants and cyanobacteria have two. The electrons then flow to the cytochrome b6f complexwhich uses their energy to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast.

Anabolism Anabolism is the set of constructive metabolic processes where the energy released by catabolism is used to synthesize complex molecules. In general, the complex molecules that make up cellular structures are constructed step-by-step from small and simple precursors.

Anabolism involves three basic stages. First, the production of precursors such as amino acidsmonosaccharidesisoprenoids and nucleotidessecondly, their activation into reactive forms using energy from ATP, and thirdly, the assembly of these precursors into complex molecules such as proteinspolysaccharideslipids and nucleic acids.

Organisms differ according to the number of constructed molecules in their cells. Autotrophs such as plants can construct the complex organic molecules in cells such as polysaccharides and proteins from simple molecules like carbon dioxide and water.

Heterotrophson the other hand, require a source of more complex substances, such as monosaccharides and amino acids, to produce these complex molecules.

Organisms can be further classified by ultimate source of their energy: PhotosynthesisCarbon fixationand Chemosynthesis Plant cells bounded by purple walls filled with chloroplasts greenwhich are the site of photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the synthesis of carbohydrates from sunlight and carbon dioxide CO2.

In plants, cyanobacteria and algae, oxygenic photosynthesis splits water, with oxygen produced as a waste product. This process uses the ATP and NADPH produced by the photosynthetic reaction centresas described above, to convert CO2 into glycerate 3-phosphatewhich can then be converted into glucose.

These differ by the route that carbon dioxide takes to the Calvin cycle, with C3 plants fixing CO2 directly, while C4 and CAM photosynthesis incorporate the CO2 into other compounds first, as adaptations to deal with intense sunlight and dry conditions. GluconeogenesisGlyoxylate cycleGlycogenesisand Glycosylation In carbohydrate anabolism, simple organic acids can be converted into monosaccharides such as glucose and then used to assemble polysaccharides such as starch.

The generation of glucose from compounds like pyruvatelactateglycerolglycerate 3-phosphate and amino acids is called gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis converts pyruvate to glucosephosphate through a series of intermediates, many of which are shared with glycolysis.

This is important as it allows the formation and breakdown of glucose to be regulated separately, and prevents both pathways from running simultaneously in a futile cycle.

As any of the hydroxyl groups on the ring of the substrate can be acceptors, the polysaccharides produced can have straight or branched structures. Some intermediates are omitted for clarity. Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units.

The acyl chains in the fatty acids are extended by a cycle of reactions that add the acyl group, reduce it to an alcohol, dehydrate it to an alkene group and then reduce it again to an alkane group.Source: Hodgkin , adapted by Fry Although the Danckwerts award had remedied the initial injustice of the GPs’ pay, specialists regarded themselves, in George Godber’s words, as a superior kind of animal.

Before the NHS they had received fees from patients referred to them by GPs. Testosterone is a sex hormone that regulates sexual development, muscle mass, and red blood cell production.

It is mainly produced in the testicles and is thought to control sex drive, fat. A. A1C A form of hemoglobin used to test blood sugars over a period of time.

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ABCs of Behavior An easy method for remembering the order of behavioral components: Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence. The pancreas / ˈ p æ ŋ k r i ə s / is a corresponding to the dual endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas. In progenitor cells of the exocrine pancreas, important molecules that induce differentiation include follistatin, fibroblast growth factors, and activation of the Notch receptor system.

This article looks at how the pancreas functions and how to keep it healthy. For full functionality, it is necessary to enable JavaScript.

An in depth review of the functions of the pancreas

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